五个扩展类使用

ListModelMixinCreateModelMixinRetrieveModelMixinUpdateModelMixinDestroyModelMixin

这五个拓展类需要和GenericAPIView配合使用

1)ListModelMixin

列表视图扩展类,提供list(request, *args, **kwargs)方法快速实现列表视图,返回200状态码。

该Mixin的list方法会对数据进行过滤和分页。

源代码:

class ListModelMixin(object):
    """
    List a queryset.
    """
    def list(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 过滤
        queryset = self.filter_queryset(self.get_queryset())
        # 分页
        page = self.paginate_queryset(queryset)
        if page is not None:
            serializer = self.get_serializer(page, many=True)
            return self.get_paginated_response(serializer.data)
        # 序列化
        serializer = self.get_serializer(queryset, many=True)
        return Response(serializer.data)

举例:

from rest_framework.mixins import ListModelMixin

class BookListView(ListModelMixin, GenericAPIView):
    queryset = BookInfo.objects.all()
    serializer_class = BookInfoSerializer

    def get(self, request):
        return self.list(request)

2)CreateModelMixin

创建视图扩展类,提供create(request, *args, **kwargs)方法快速实现创建资源的视图,成功返回201状态码。

如果序列化器对前端发送的数据验证失败,返回400错误。

源代码:

class CreateModelMixin(object):
    """
    Create a model instance.
    """
    def create(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 获取序列化器
        serializer = self.get_serializer(data=request.data)
        # 验证
        serializer.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
        # 保存
        self.perform_create(serializer)
        headers = self.get_success_headers(serializer.data)
        return Response(serializer.data, status=status.HTTP_201_CREATED, headers=headers)

    def perform_create(self, serializer):
        serializer.save()

    def get_success_headers(self, data):
        try:
            return {'Location': str(data[api_settings.URL_FIELD_NAME])}
        except (TypeError, KeyError):
            return {}

3) RetrieveModelMixin

详情视图扩展类,提供retrieve(request, *args, **kwargs)方法,可以快速实现返回一个存在的数据对象。

如果存在,返回200, 否则返回404。

源代码:

class RetrieveModelMixin(object):
    """
    Retrieve a model instance.
    """
    def retrieve(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        # 获取对象,会检查对象的权限
        instance = self.get_object()
        # 序列化
        serializer = self.get_serializer(instance)
        return Response(serializer.data)

举例:

class BookDetailView(RetrieveModelMixin, GenericAPIView):
    queryset = BookInfo.objects.all()
    serializer_class = BookInfoSerializer

    def get(self, request, pk):
        return self.retrieve(request)

4)UpdateModelMixin

更新视图扩展类,提供update(request, *args, **kwargs)方法,可以快速实现更新一个存在的数据对象。

同时也提供partial_update(request, *args, **kwargs)方法,可以实现局部更新。

成功返回200,序列化器校验数据失败时,返回400错误。

源代码:

class UpdateModelMixin(object):
    """
    Update a model instance.
    """
    def update(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        partial = kwargs.pop('partial', False)
        instance = self.get_object()
        serializer = self.get_serializer(instance, data=request.data, partial=partial)
        serializer.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
        self.perform_update(serializer)

        if getattr(instance, '_prefetched_objects_cache', None):
            # If 'prefetch_related' has been applied to a queryset, we need to
            # forcibly invalidate the prefetch cache on the instance.
            instance._prefetched_objects_cache = {}

        return Response(serializer.data)

    def perform_update(self, serializer):
        serializer.save()

    def partial_update(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        kwargs['partial'] = True
        return self.update(request, *args, **kwargs)

5)DestroyModelMixin

删除视图扩展类,提供destroy(request, *args, **kwargs)方法,可以快速实现删除一个存在的数据对象。

成功返回204,不存在返回404。

源代码:

class DestroyModelMixin(object):
    """
    Destroy a model instance.
    """
    def destroy(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        instance = self.get_object()
        self.perform_destroy(instance)
        return Response(status=status.HTTP_204_NO_CONTENT)

    def perform_destroy(self, instance):
        instance.delete()

ListModelMixinCreateModelMixinRetrieveModelMixinUpdateModelMixinDestroyModelMixin

python演示代码如下:

from rest_framework.generics import GenericAPIView
from rest_framework.mixins import CreateModelMixin, ListModelMixin, RetrieveModelMixin, UpdateModelMixin, DestroyModelMixin

from book_drf.serializer import BookSerializer
from books.models import BookInfo


class Books(CreateModelMixin, ListModelMixin, GenericAPIView):
    queryset = BookInfo.objects.all()  # 指定当前类视图使用的查询集数据
    serializer_class = BookSerializer  # 指定当前类视图使用的序列化器

    def get(self, request):
        return self.list(request)

    def post(self, request):
        return self.create(request)


class Book(GenericAPIView, RetrieveModelMixin):
    queryset = BookInfo.objects.all()  # 指定当前类视图使用的查询集数据
    serializer_class = BookSerializer  # 指定当前类视图使用的序列化器

    def get(self, request, pk):
        return self.retrieve(request, pk)


class BookDRFView(GenericAPIView, UpdateModelMixin, DestroyModelMixin):
    """
        获取单一和更新和删除
    """

    queryset = BookInfo.objects.all()  # 指定当前类视图使用的查询集数据
    serializer_class = BookSerializer  # 指定当前类视图使用的序列化器

    def put(self, request, pk):
        return self.update(request, pk)

    def delete(self, request, pk):
        return self.destroy(request, pk)